Relationship between desalination, iodine, and health implications

Water scarcity is a growing concern worldwide. Israel is a country that has been facing a water crisis for decades due to its geographic location in a semi-arid region with a growing population and limited natural water resources. In response to this challenge, Israel has implemented a comprehensive water management system that includes desalination, water reuse, and efficient irrigation practices. 

Israel's reliance on desalinated water has significantly increased in the last few years, making Israel the world's leader in desalination technology, producing over 600 million cubic meters of water annually. Today, desalinated water accounts for nearly 85-90% of Israel's domestic water consumption, highlighting its vital role in ensuring the country's water security. 

Desalination of water may come at a price. The natural sources of water are typically enriched with microelements, some of which are essential for human health, such as magnesium, calcium, iodine, and potassium. Lack of iodine, specifically, is associated with thyroid diseases. We aim in this study to estimate the association between exposure to desalinated water and its possible implications for health.