Metabolic effect

The effects of ambient particulate matter on human adipose tissue (Hassan et al, 2019)

The effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution on adipose tissue have mainly been studied in animal models. The aim of this study was to examine the potential associations between PM exposure and 25 cellular markers in human omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue.

Main results: Chemokine levels were found to increase after acute and intermediate exposure duration to PM10. The levels of stress signaling biomarkers in the SC and OM tissues rose after acute exposure to PM10 and PM2.5. Macrophage and leucocyte counts were associated with severity of PM exposure in all three duration groups. Adipocyte diameter decreased in all exposure periods. Our results provide evidence for significant contribution of air pollutants exposure to adipose tissue inflammation as well as for pathophysiological mechanisms of metabolic dysregulation that may be involved in the observed responses.


The Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Glucose and Lipids Levels (Yitshak-Sade et al, 2016)

Evidence from recent decades supports a causal association between air pollution (particulate matter <10 μm in diameter [PM10] and PM <2.5 μm in diameter [PM2.5]) and oxidative stress, possibly involving impaired metabolism of glucose and lipids.

Using a satellite based model we assessed PM exposure at 1-km spatial resolution, we examined the associations between PM and glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipids.

Main results: Intermediate term, but not short term, exposure to PM is associated with alterations in glucose, HbA1c, and lipids, especially among people with diabetes.

Air Pollution and Serum Glucose Levels (Yitshak-Sade et al, 2015

Recent studies demonstrated an adverse effect of chronic exposure to air pollution (AP) on metabolic syndrome and its components. In a population-based study, we investigated the association between exposure to ambient AP and serum glucose (SG), among subjects with normal glucose, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes mellitus (DM).

Main results: NO2 and SO2 exposure were associated with small but significantly increased levels of SG. Although DM patients were found to be more susceptible to the AP induced SG variations, Metformin treatment seem to have a protective effect.

Air pollution and meteorological conditions during gestation and type 1 diabetes in offspring (Taha-Khalde et al, 2021)

Growing evidence indicates that air pollution is capable of disrupting the immune system and therefore, might be associated with an onset of Type 1 diabetes (T1D).

We explored possible links of T1D with ambient exposures in the population of southern Israel, characterized by hot and dry climate and frequent dust storms.

Main results: We showed that exposure to high ozone levels and solar radiation during gestation might be related to the T1D.